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Ijtihad

Exercising independent judgement in Islamic law and theology.
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Like the more commonly known term jihad, the word ijtihad stems from the Arabic root jahada, meaning 'to strive' or 'to struggle.' It is sometimes translated into English as 'reasoning,' but traditionally the concept has a more specific meaning: it describes the efforts undertaken to apply the lessons of the Quran and Sunnah in different social contexts.

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