195 not a reference

Ulama

Islam's learned men and women.
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The Arabic word ulama (singular, alim) is used to describe people who have knowledge (ilm) of Islamic tradition, history and law. It literally means 'the ones who know.' The normal translation in English is 'scholar.' Usually therefore when Muslim religious leaders refer to 'scholarly consensus' it is the ulama they are referring to, not to European university academics.

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